- Oppenheimer, (Julius) Robert
- (1904-1967)Born to German immigrant parents in New York City, J. Robert Oppenheimer obtained a degree in chemistry from Harvard University in 1925 and a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Göttingen, Germany, in 1927. After further research at different institutions, he joined the physics department at the University of California at Berkeley, where he became a full professor in 1936. He joined the Manhattan Project in 1942 and was involved in the development of the first atomic bomb in Los Alamos, New Mexico. He resigned from the project after the first successful test explosion in July 1945 and returned to Berkeley. From 1947 until 1966, Oppenheimer worked at the Institute for Advanced Study at the University of Princeton. He was a member of the General Advisory Committee to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from 1947 to 1953 and was appointed president of the American Physical Society in 1948.In 1953, Oppenheimer, whose doubts about the development of the hydrogen bomb were well-known, was accused of being a security risk by Senator Joseph McCarthy, and the AEC revoked his security clearance. Despite protests from the scientific community, the order was not overturned. Oppenheimer continued his work at Princeton and as a speaker and lecturer. In 1963, he was awarded the Enrico Fermi Prize for his contributions to science by President John F. Kennedy, and the award was presented by President Lyndon Johnson after Kennedy’s death.
Historical Dictionary of the Roosevelt–Truman Era . Neil A. Wynn . 2015.