Hitler, Adolf

   German Nazi leader Adolf Hitler was born in Austria. After serving in the army in World War I, he joined the right-wing National Socialist German Workers’ Party in 1919 and quickly assumed leadership. Jailed following a failed putsch in Munich in 1923, he and the Nazi Party later rose to prominence when Germany was hit by the effects of the Great Depression. On 30 January 1933, he was appointed chancellor of Germany and was able to establish a one-party state. On 2 August 1934, Hitler was proclaimed führer. His regime was marked by virulent anti-Semitism and racism that led to the persecution and eventual attempted extermination of the Jews, Gypsies, and other groups regarded as inferior. Intent on overturning the Versailles Treaty of 1919, Hitler built up the German armed forces, established an Axis with Mussolini’s fascist Italy, and in 1938 began a policy of territorial expansion. German forces occupied Austria followed by Czechoslovakia. His attack on Poland led to the outbreak of World War II in September 1939. Easily victorious in the west, with only Great Britain remaining undefeated, Hitler attacked the Soviet Union in June 1940. When the United States declared war on Japan following the attack on Pearl Harbor, Hitler declared war on the United States on 11 December 1941. By 1945, Germany was under attack on two fronts, and as the Allies closed in on Berlin, on 30 April 1945 Hitler shot and killed himself. Only with his defeat did the full horror of Nazi rule and the Holocaust become known. Some of Hitler’s closest associates stood trial and were executed following the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials after the war.

Historical Dictionary of the Roosevelt–Truman Era . . 2015.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • HITLER, ADOLF° — (1889–1945), chief of the German National Socialist Party from 1920 and chancellor of the Reich from 1933. Hitler was the man who planned the extermination of the Jews, took the total decision, created the required organizations, and followed… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Hitler, Adolf —   Als Sohn eines österreichischen Zollbeamten am 20. April 1889 in Braunau am Inn geboren, brach Hitler nach dem Tode seines Vaters (1903) seine Realschulausbildung in Steyr 1905 ab und lebte, mit Mal und Zeichenstudien beschäftigt, bei seiner… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Hitler, Adolf — born Apr. 20, 1899, Braunau am Inn, Austria died Apr. 30, 1945, Berlin, Ger. Dictator of Nazi Germany (1933–45). Born in Austria, he had little success as an artist in Vienna before moving to Munich in 1913. As a soldier in the German army in… …   Universalium

  • Hitler, Adolf — (1889–1945)    Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 in the Austrian town of Braunau, close to the German border. His father, Alois, was a civil servant who provided his son with the opportunity to acquire a good education, but young Adolf never …   Historical dictionary of the Holocaust

  • Hitler, Adolf — (1889 1945)    leader of the NSDAP; his appointment as Chancellor on 30 January 1933 terminated the Weimar Republic. Born to an Austrian bureaucrat in Braunau am Inn, he grew up in Linz and moved in 1907 to Vienna, where he applied in vain for… …   Historical dictionary of Weimar Republik

  • Hitler, Adolf — (1889–1945)    German dictator. By the time Hitler lay dead in a Berlin bunker, beneath the rubble of his Third Reich, his ‘final solution’ had accounted for the slaughter of one out of every three Jews on earth. The Holocaust was the greatest… …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Hitler, Adolf — ► (1889 1945) Político alemán de origen austríaco. Influido por el antisemitismo de Lanz von Liebenfels, Hitler proyectó sus frustraciones contra los judíos. Tras la Primera Guerra Mundial ingresó en el Partido Obrero Alemán, del cual asumió la… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Hitler,Adolf — Hit·ler (hĭtʹlər), Adolf. Known as “Der Führer.” 1889 1945. Austrian born founder of the German Nazi Party and chancellor of the Third Reich (1933 1945). His fascist philosophy, embodied in Mein Kampf (1925 1927), attracted widespread support,… …   Universalium

  • Hitler, Adolf —  (1889–1945) Not Adolph. The German Nazi leader …   Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors

  • Hitler — Hitler, Adolf …   Enciclopedia Universal

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