Hughes, Charles Evans

   The future associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1910 to 1916, secretary of state from 1921 to 1925, and chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1930 to 1941 was born in Glen Falls, New York. Hughes attended Madison University (now Colgate University) and then Brown University before graduating from Columbia Law School in 1884. He practiced law in New York City and served as counsel for the New York State Legislature’s committee investigating gas companies in 1906. He achieved national prominence when, as counsel for a similar committee investigating insurance companies in 1905 and 1906, he exposed corrupt practices. In 1906, Hughes defeated William Randolph Hearst to become the Republican governor of New York. He established the public service commission and introduced insurance law reforms and several pieces of labor legislation. From 1910 he served as associate justice to the U.S. Supreme Court until 1916, when he stood as the Republican presidential candidate. He lost the election to Democrat Woodrow Wilson by one of the narrowest margins in history.
   Hughes was appointed secretary of state by President Warren Harding and President Calvin Coolidge from 1921 to 1925. In 1926, he became a member of the Hague Tribunal and also a judge on the Permanent Court of Internal Justice from 1928 to 1930. He was appointed chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court by Herbert Hoover in 1930. As chief justice, Hughes generally held a moderately conservative position. He ruled in favor of the Scottsboro Boys in 1932 in the decision that those tried in capital cases were entitled to proper counsel, and again in 1935 against trials in which black people had been systematically excluded as jurors. However, Hughes had a mixed record with regard to the New Deal. In 1935, he led the majority decisions in three crucial cases against New Deal measures: Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States against the National Industrial Recovery Act, Louisville Joint Stock Land Bank v. Radford against relief for farm debtors; and Hopkins Federal Savings & Loan Assn. v. Cleary against the Home Owners’ Loan Act. In United States v. Butler in 1936, Hughes joined with Owen J. Roberts, and the four consistently conservative justices, Willis Van Devanter, James McReynolds, George Sutherland, and Pierce Butler, in declaring the Agricultural Adjustment Act unconstitutional. When President Franklin D. Roosevelt attempted what was seen as “court packing” with a proposed Court Reorganization Plan in 1937, Hughes publicly and crucially criticized the president’s argument and contributed to the act’s defeat. However, he was aware that the court needed to respond to the times, and in 1937 he led the “switch in time that would save nine” in heading the decision to sustain minimum wage laws (West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish) and later in approving the National Labor Relations Board (National Labor Relations Board v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corp.). He also voted with the majority in subsequent decisions approving the Social Security Act, the revised Agricultural Adjustment Act, and the Fair Labor Standards Act. He retired from the Supreme Court in 1941 after a life of public service.

Historical Dictionary of the Roosevelt–Truman Era . . 2015.

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  • Hughes,Charles Evans — Hughes (hyo͞oz), Charles Evans. 1862 1948. American jurist and politician who was appointed an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1910) but resigned to make an unsuccessful bid for the presidency (1916). He served as secretary of state… …   Universalium

  • Hughes, Charles Evans — born April 11, 1862, Glens Falls, N.Y., U.S. died Aug. 27, 1948, Osterville, Mass. U.S. jurist and statesman. He became prominent in 1905 as counsel to New York legislative committees investigating abuses in the life insurance and utilities… …   Universalium

  • Hughes, Charles Evans — (11 abr. 1862, Glens Falls, N.Y., EE.UU.–27 ago. 1948, Osterville, Mass.). Jurista y estadista estadounidense. Se destacó en 1905 como asesor jurídico de los comités legislativos de Nueva York que investigaban los abusos en las empresas de… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Charles Evans Hughes — (* 11. April 1862 in Glens Falls, Warren County, New York; † 27. August 1948 in Osterville, Massachusetts) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker und Jurist. Er amtiert …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Charles Evans Hughes — For other persons of the same name see Charles Evans Hughes, Jr. (1889 1951) and Charles Evans Hughes, III (1915 1985) Charles Evans Hughes, Sr. 11th Chief Justice of the United States …   Wikipedia

  • Charles Evans Hughes, Jr. — For other persons of the same name see Charles Evans Hughes (1862 1948) and Charles Evans Hughes III (1915 1985) Charles Evans Hughes, Jr. (November 30, 1889 – January 21, 1950) was the United States Solicitor General in 1929 1930. As a young man …   Wikipedia

  • Charles Evans Hughes III — For other persons of the same name see Charles Evans Hughes (1862–1948) and Charles Evans Hughes, Jr. (1889–1951) Charles Evans Hughes III Born March 14, 1915 Died January 1985 Nationality American Charles Evans Hughes III (1915 – 1985) was… …   Wikipedia

  • Charles Evans Hughes — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Hughes. Charles Evans Hughes (1862 1948) Charles Evans Hughes (11 avril 1862 à Glens Falls – 27 août  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Charles Evans Hughes — Este artículo o sección necesita referencias que aparezcan en una publicación acreditada, como revistas especializadas, monografías, prensa diaria o páginas de Internet fidedignas. Puedes añadirlas así o avisar …   Wikipedia Español

  • Charles Evans Hughes House — U.S. National Register of Historic Places U.S. National Historic Landmark …   Wikipedia

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