Jackson, Robert Houghwout

   Born in Pennsylvania, Robert Jackson left high school at 18 to work in a law office and attended Albany Law School for two years. He was admitted to the bar in 1913 and subsequently set up a law practice in Jamestown, New York. His success as a lawyer in the state led to his appointment as general counsel in the Treasury Department office, the Internal Revenue Service. He became U.S. solicitor general in 1938 and attorney general in 1940. In 1941, Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Jackson to the Supreme Court, where he established a considerable reputation for the impressive style of his written arguments. His argument in West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette was widely quoted as a defense of individual liberty, and the formula he outlined in Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v Sawyer as a means of assessing the use of presidential power is still used. In 1945, Jackson was appointed chief prosecutor in the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials. While he was in Germany, President Harry S. Truman made Fred Vinson chief justice, and Jackson felt he had been passed over because of the influence of fellow justice Hugo Black. Their public animosity reflected badly on the court and tarnished an otherwise outstanding reputation.

Historical Dictionary of the Roosevelt–Truman Era . . 2015.

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  • Robert H. Jackson — Robert Houghwout Jackson (* 13. Februar 1892 im Spring Creek Township, Warren County, Pennsylvania; † 9. Oktober 1954 in Washington D. C.) war Attorney General, Richter am Obersten Gerichtshof der Vereinigten Staaten und amerikanischer Ha …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Robert Jackson — Robert Houghwout Jackson (13 février 1892 9 octobre 1954) est le procureur en chef pour les États Unis au procès de Nuremberg en 1945 et 1946. Il est aussi procureur général des États Unis (attorney general, ministre de la Justice) de …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jackson — /jak seuhn/, n. 1. Andrew ( Old Hickory ), 1767 1845, U.S. general: 7th president of the U.S. 1829 37. 2. Lady Barbara. See Ward, Barbara. 3. Helen Hunt (Helen Maria Fiske), 1830 85, U.S. novelist and poet. 4. Jesse L(ouis), born 1941, U.S.… …   Universalium

  • Robert — /rob euhrt/, n. 1. Henry Martyn /mahr tn/, 1837 1923, U.S. engineer and authority on parliamentary procedure: author of Robert s Rules of Order (1876, revised 1915). 2. a male given name: from Germanic words meaning glory and bright. * * * (as… …   Universalium

  • Robert H. Jackson — Infobox Judge name = Robert H. Jackson imagesize = caption = Robert H. Jackson, c. 1945 office = Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court termstart = July 11 1941 termend = October 9 1954 nominator = Franklin Delano Roosevelt… …   Wikipedia

  • Jackson — I Jackson   [dʒæksn], Hauptstadt des Bundesstaates Mississippi, USA, (1990) 196 600 Einwohner (1950: 98 300 Einwohner); katholischer Bischofssitz; Colleges, Kunst , Staatsmuseum, Staatsbibliothek. Jackson ist das wichtigste Industrie , Handels… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Джексон Роберт Хауэт — (Jackson, Robert Houghwout) (1892 1954), амер. юрист и гос. деятель. Убежденный сторонник политики Нового курса, проводившейся президентом Франклином Д. Рузвельтом в 1930 х гг., выступал в Верховном суде США в защиту законов, направленных на… …   Всемирная история

  • Supreme Court —    The Supreme Court is the highest federal court in the land consisting of nine justices, each appointed for life by the president. During the progressive period prior to World War I, the court moved from its predominantly conservative and… …   Historical Dictionary of the Roosevelt–Truman Era

  • Cabinet of President Franklin D. Roosevelt — ▪ Table Cabinet of President Franklin D. Roosevelt March 4, 1933 January 20, 1937 (Term 1) State Cordell Hull (Hull, Cordell) Treasury William Hartman Woodin Henry Morgenthau, Jr. (Morgenthau, Henry, Jr.) (from January 8, 1934) War George Henry… …   Universalium

  • Liste Des Juges De La Cour Suprême Des États-Unis D'Amérique — Pour consulter un article plus général, voir : Cour suprême des États Unis. Chief Justice des États Unis Sommaire …   Wikipédia en Français

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