- Following the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 there were mounting fears among the population of the west coast states of subversion or “fifth column” among the resident Japanese American population of about 127,000. As a result President Franklin D. Roosevelt bowed to pressure from local politicians and military advisers and on 19 February 1942 issued Executive Order 9066 authorizing the compulsory relocation of Japanese Americans to 10 internment camps established mainly in Arizona and Utah by the War Relocation Authority. Some 112,000 people, two-thirds of whom were American-born (Nisei), were evacuated with only a few days to prepare or to dispose of their property. It was estimated that the total losses for the Japanese Americans were in excess of $400 million. The decision was upheld by the Supreme Court in Hirabayashi v. United States (1943) and Korematsu v. United States (1944). Despite this, some 12,000 Japanese Americans served in the U.S. Army, and the 442nd Infantry Combat Team of Nisei troops became the most decorated unit for its bravery in the Italian campaign.Following the Supreme Court decision in Endo v. United States (1944) that citizens accepted as loyal could not be detained against their will, the camp inmates were gradually released, but only 58 percent returned to the west coast. The great majority quickly reintegrated back into society, but approximately 7,000 returned to Japan. Congress approved a mere $38 million in compensation in 1948, but in 1988 a full official and public apology was issued to the 60,000 survivors of those interned, each of whom was paid $20,000 in cash.In addition to those held in the relocation camps, another 7,000 Japanese Americans and Japanese were held in camps run by the Immigration and Naturalization Service. Approximately 2,500 Japanese were interned in two camps in Hawaii. However, the majority of Japanese living in Hawaii were left at large in part because they were too sizeable a section of the population (35 percent), in part because martial law had been declared on the islands, and because of the greater degree of racial integration.
Historical Dictionary of the Roosevelt–Truman Era . Neil A. Wynn . 2015.
Look at other dictionaries:
List of Japanese Americans — The following is a list of notable Japanese Americans who have made significant contributions to the United States, or have appeared in the news numerous times: ListArts and architecture* Tadashi Asoma, a contemporary art painter;in the… … Wikipedia
Japanese American internment — refers to the forcible relocation and internment of approximately 110,000 Japanese nationals and Japanese Americans to housing facilities called War Relocation Camps , in the wake of Imperial Japan s attack on Pearl Harbor. [… … Wikipedia
Japanese American — Japanese Americans 日系アメリカ人（日系米国人） Nikkei Americajin(Nikkei Beikokujin) … Wikipedia
Japanese American history — Japanese people s migration to the Americas started with migration to Hawaii in the first year of the Meiji era in 1868. The total of the migrant population is about 1 million.About 750,000 people emigrated before World War II, and about 250,000… … Wikipedia
Japanese Peruvian — Japanese Peruvians … Wikipedia
Japanese Canadians — Total population 98,900 Regions with significant populations British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, Quebec Languages Japanese … Wikipedia
Japanese diaspora — 日系人 Total population About 2,600,000  Regions with significant populations … Wikipedia
Japanese language education in the United States — began in the late 19th century, aimed mainly at Japanese American children and conducted by parents and community institutions; over the course of the next century, it would slowly expand to include non Japanese as well as native speakers (mainly … Wikipedia
Japanese internment — is a term generally used to refer to one or both of the following events: *Japanese American internment, the internment of Japanese Americans in the United States during World War II *Japanese Canadian internment, the internment of Japanese… … Wikipedia
Japanese American life pre-World War II — Like most of the American population, Japanese immigrants came to the U.S. in search of a better life. Some planned to stay and build families here in the states, while others wanted to save money from working stateside to better themselves in… … Wikipedia