Morgenthau, Henry, Jr.

   Henry Morgenthau was born into a wealthy Jewish family in New York City and educated at Phillips Exeter Academy, Sachs Collegiate Institute, and Cornell University, but he left the university after three years in 1913 without graduating. During World War I, Morgenthau worked in the Food Administration. Having studied agriculture and purchased farmland in New York, from 1922 onward he published the farm journal American Agriculturalist. A personal friend of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Morgenthau was appointed chair of the New York Agricultural Advisory Commission in 1928 and commissioner on conservation in 1930. When Roosevelt became president, Morgenthau became chair of the Federal Farm Board (which had been created in 1929) and helped create the Farm Credit Administration. At the start of 1934 he became secretary of the treasury, a post he held until 1945. As secretary of the treasury, Morgenthau defended the dollar by buying and selling foreign currencies, gold, and dollars. In this way, he helped establish the dollar as the strongest currency by 1938. Although a fiscal conservative, he accepted deficit spending and managed by a double-budget system, a normal budget and emergency budget that provided for various New Deal agencies. During World War II, he worked to finance the war effort through the sale of war bonds that raised more than $200 billion. Morgenthau was also involved in planning for the postwar settlement. He proposed, in what became known as the “Morgenthau Plan,” that Germany be stripped of industrial resources and turned solely into an agricultural producer, a plan that was never adopted. Morgenthau resigned shortly after Roosevelt’s death and devoted himself to fundraising for Jewish causes. He became chair of the United Jewish Appeal from 1947 to 1950 and chair of the American Financial and Development Corporation for Israel from 1951 to 1954.

Historical Dictionary of the Roosevelt–Truman Era . . 2015.

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  • Morgenthau, Henry, Jr. — born May 11, 1891, New York, N.Y., U.S. died Feb. 6, 1967, Poughkeepsie, N.Y. U.S. public official. He was editor of American Agriculturist (1922–33) and a close friend of Franklin D. Roosevelt. As secretary of the treasury in Roosevelt s cabinet …   Universalium

  • Morgenthau, Henry — 1891–1967    Morgenthau was President ROOSEVELT’s Secretary of the Treasury from 1934 until the end of the war. During the war his one overriding task was to finance a mammoth war economy and war production without prompting correspondingly great …   Who’s Who in World War Two

  • Morgenthau, Henry Jr. — (1891 1967)    American agriculturalist and politician, son of Henry Morgenthau. He was born in New York. He became chairman of the Agricultural Advisory Commission in 1928, and in 1934 was appointed secretary to the Treasury. He was active in a… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Morgenthau, Henry — (1856 1946)    American financier and diplomat. He was born in Mannheim, Germany, and settled in the US in 1865. Initially he practised law, but then became active in real estate and banking. From 1913 to 1916 he was US ambassador to Turkey.… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Morgenthau, Henry, Jr. — (11 may. 1891, Nueva York, N.Y. EE.UU.–6 feb. 1967, Poughkeepsie, N.Y.). Funcionario público estadounidense. Fue director del American Agriculturist (1922–33) y amigo íntimo de Franklin D. Roosevelt. En su calidad de secretario del tesoro en el… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Morgenthau, Henry, Jr. —  (1891–1967) American statesman, secretary of the treasury (1934–1945) …   Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors

  • Henry Morgenthau, Jr. — Henry Morgenthau, Jr. 52nd United States Secretary of the Treasury In office January 1, 1934 – July 22, 1945 President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1934 1945) …   Wikipedia

  • Henry Morgenthau, Sr. — Henry Morgenthau 26th United States Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire In office 1913–1916 President Woodrow Wilson …   Wikipedia

  • Henry Morgenthau — junior [ˈmɔːrgənθɔː] (* 11. Mai 1891 in Poughkeepsie, New York; † 6. Februar 1967 in New York City) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker. Von 1934 bis …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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