- (1886-1952)Philip Murray was born the son of a miner in Scotland and came to the United States with his family in 1902. He became a naturalized citizen in 1911. He worked as a miner near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and became president of the local district of the United Mine Workers Union (UMW) in 1916. By 1920 he was vice president of the union under John L. Lewis. Murray sat on the National War Labor Board and National Coal Production Committee during World War I. In the 1930s, he supported President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal and was a member of the board of the National Recovery Administration (NRA). In 1935, Murray, Lewis, and Sidney Hillman were the leading forces in the formation of the Committee for Industrial Organizations within the American Federation of Labor. Murray became president of the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1940. In 1936, Murray took charge of leading the Steel Workers’ Organizing Committee that secured recognition from “Big Steel,” including the U.S. Steel Corporation, in 1937. “Little Steel” held out until 1941. From 1942 to 1952, Murray was president of United Steel Workers of America (USWA). By then, differences with Lewis, particularly with regard to the “no-strike pledge” during World War II, had led to his expulsion from the UMW. During the war, Murray supported the Fair Employment Practices Committee and called for the integration of black workers in trade unions and employment. After the war, he opposed the Taft-Hartley Act and worked to redefine some of its applications. Although a close adviser to Harry S. Truman, Murray was involved in a confrontation with the president in 1952 when Truman threatened to nationalize the steel industry to prevent a strike. When the Supreme Court ruled against the president in Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer, Murray led the USWA on strike. Although he was forced to end the strike after 51 days, agreement was reached in 1952 recognizing some of the union’s demands. It was the last major event in Murray’s life.
Historical Dictionary of the Roosevelt–Truman Era . Neil A. Wynn . 2015.
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Murray, Philip — born , May 25, 1886, Blantyre, Lanark, Scot. died Nov. 9, 1952, San Francisco, Calif., U.S. Scottish born U.S. labour leader. After immigrating to the U.S. in 1902, he became a coal miner in Pennsylvania. He joined the United Mine Workers of… … Universalium
Murray, Philip — (25 may. 1886, Blantyre, Lanark, Escocia–9 nov. 1952, San Francisco, Cal., EE.UU.). Líder sindical estadounidense nacido en Escocia. Después de emigrar a EE.UU. en 1902, trabajó como minero del carbón en Pensilvania. Se afilió a United Mine… … Enciclopedia Universal
Philip Murray — (1886 1952) était un syndicaliste américain. Il fut le président du Steel Workers Organizing Committee puis de l United Steelworkers de 1936 à 1952, et le président du CIO de 1940 à 1952. Lien externe … Wikipédia en Français
Murray — /merr ee, mur ee/, n. 1. Sir (George) Gilbert (Aimé) /ay may /, 1866 1957, English classical scholar. 2. Sir James Augustus Henry, 1837 1915, Scottish lexicographer and philologist. 3. Lindley /lin lee, lind /, 1745 1826, English grammarian, born … Universalium
Philip — /fil ip/, n. 1. one of the 12 apostles. Mark 3:18; John 1:43 48; 6:5 7. 2. one of the leaders of the Christian Hellenists in the early church in Jerusalem who afterwards became an evangelist and missionary. Acts 6; 8:26 40. 3. King (Metacomet),… … Universalium
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Philip H. Stoll — Philip Henry Stoll (* 5. November 1874 in Little Rock, Dillon County, South Carolina; † 29. Oktober 1958 in Columbia, South Carolina) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker. Zwischen 1919 und 1923 vertrat er den Bundesstaat South … Deutsch Wikipedia