Oppenheimer, (Julius) Robert

   Born to German immigrant parents in New York City, J. Robert Oppenheimer obtained a degree in chemistry from Harvard University in 1925 and a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Göttingen, Germany, in 1927. After further research at different institutions, he joined the physics department at the University of California at Berkeley, where he became a full professor in 1936. He joined the Manhattan Project in 1942 and was involved in the development of the first atomic bomb in Los Alamos, New Mexico. He resigned from the project after the first successful test explosion in July 1945 and returned to Berkeley. From 1947 until 1966, Oppenheimer worked at the Institute for Advanced Study at the University of Princeton. He was a member of the General Advisory Committee to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from 1947 to 1953 and was appointed president of the American Physical Society in 1948.
   In 1953, Oppenheimer, whose doubts about the development of the hydrogen bomb were well-known, was accused of being a security risk by Senator Joseph McCarthy, and the AEC revoked his security clearance. Despite protests from the scientific community, the order was not overturned. Oppenheimer continued his work at Princeton and as a speaker and lecturer. In 1963, he was awarded the Enrico Fermi Prize for his contributions to science by President John F. Kennedy, and the award was presented by President Lyndon Johnson after Kennedy’s death.

Historical Dictionary of the Roosevelt–Truman Era . . 2015.

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  • Oppenheimer , Julius Robert — (1904–1967) American physicist Oppenheimer came from a wealthy New York City family. He was educated at Harvard, at Cambridge, England, and at Göttingen where he obtained his PhD in 1927. From 1929 to 1942 he was at the University of California,… …   Scientists

  • Oppenheimer, J. Robert — ▪ American physicist in full  Julius Robert Oppenheimer   born , April 22, 1904, New York, New York, U.S. died February 18, 1967, Princeton, New Jersey  American theoretical physicist and science administrator, noted as director of the Los Alamos …   Universalium

  • Julius Robert Oppenheimer — Robert Oppenheimer (ca. 1944) Julius Robert Oppenheimer (* 22. April 1904 in New York, NY, USA; † 18. Februar 1967 in Princeton, New Jersey) war ein US amerikanischer theoretischer Physi …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Julius Robert Oppenheimer — Robert Oppenheimer Pour les articles homonymes, voir Oppenheimer. Robert Oppenheimer Robert Oppenheimer (22 avril …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Julius Robert Oppenheimer — ➡ Oppenheimer * * * …   Universalium

  • OPPENHEIMER (J. R.) — OPPENHEIMER JULIUS ROBERT (1904 1967) Physicien américain né à New York et mort à Princeton, Julius Robert Oppenheimer entre, en 1925, à l’université Harvard. Diplômé en 1928, il poursuit des études de mathématiques et de physique théorique à… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Oppenheimer — (Julius Robert) (1904 1967) physicien américain: travaux de mécanique quantique. En 1943, il fut nommé directeur du centre de recherches de Los Alamos où fut construite la première bombe atomique …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Robert Oppenheimer — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Oppenheimer. Julius Robert Oppenheimer Naissance 22 avril …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Julius — /joohl yeuhs/, n. a male given name: a Roman family name. * * * (as used in expressions) Agricola Gnaeus Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Cohn Ferdinand Julius Cohnheim Julius Friedrich Erving Julius Winfield Frontinus Sextus Julius Fuchs Emil Klaus… …   Universalium

  • Robert — /rob euhrt/, n. 1. Henry Martyn /mahr tn/, 1837 1923, U.S. engineer and authority on parliamentary procedure: author of Robert s Rules of Order (1876, revised 1915). 2. a male given name: from Germanic words meaning glory and bright. * * * (as… …   Universalium

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