Brandeis, Louis Dembitz

   The son of Austrian immigrants, future Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis was born in Louisville, Kentucky. After traveling in Europe and studying in Dresden, Germany, Brandeis returned to the United States in 1875 and entered Harvard Law School. He graduated in 1877 with the highest grades ever achieved. Brandeis practiced law briefly in St. Louis and then returned to Boston. He gradually developed a reputation as a progressive lawyer who favored equal protection of trade unions in their relations with business and who opposed monopoly. In the landmark case of Muller v. Oregon (1908), Brandeis used statistical and other information rather than legal precedent to establish that long hours of work were potentially harmful to women and persuaded the Supreme Court to uphold Oregon’s laws limiting the hours of work for females. He also supported the prohibition of child labor and laws introducing unemployment and old-age insurance. He backed the candidacy of Woodrow Wilson, who, in turn, appointed Brandeis to the Supreme Court in 1916.
   As a Supreme Court justice, Brandeis argued for the qualification on the principle of “clear and present danger” established by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes in upholding wartime espionage legislation in Schenck v. United States (1919), arguing in 1920 and 1927 that the danger had to be “serious” and “imminent.” In 1928 he argued that wiretapping was a violation of the Fourth Amendment. He was sympathetic to much of the New Deal but opposed what he saw as excessive centralization. Although with Benjamin Cardozo and Harlan Stone Brandeis was regarded as one of the “liberal” bloc, he voted with the rest of the Court on “Black Monday” to declare the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional. The oldest justice at the time, Brandeis was personally offended by President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s “court packing” proposals. In the end, he was forced to retire because of ill health in 1939. Brandeis University was named after him.

Historical Dictionary of the Roosevelt–Truman Era . . 2015.

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  • BRANDEIS, LOUIS DEMBITZ — (1856–1941), U.S. jurist, the first Jew to be appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court. Early Years Brandeis was born in Louisville, Kentucky, the youngest of four children of Adolph and Frederika Dembitz Brandeis. His parents, both of whom were born… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Brandeis,Louis Dembitz — Bran·deis (brănʹdīs , dīz ), Louis Dembitz. 1856 1941. American jurist who served as an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1916 1939). His opposition to monopolies and defense of individual human rights formed the basis of many of his… …   Universalium

  • Brandeis, Louis Dembitz — (1856–1941)    US Supreme Court judge and Zionist leader. Brandeis was the most eminent American Jew in his time, and his accession to Zionism late in life gave the movement a new political dimension in the United States.    His parents came from …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Brandeis, Louis (Dembitz) — born Nov. 13, 1856, Louisville, Ky., U.S. died Oct. 5, 1941, Washington, D.C. U.S. jurist. The son of Bohemian Jewish immigrants, he attended schools in Kentucky and Germany before obtaining his law degree from Harvard (1877). As a lawyer in… …   Universalium

  • Brandeis, Louis (Dembitz) — (13 nov. 1856, Louisville, Ky., EE.UU.–5 oct. 1941, Washington, D.C.). Jurista estadounidense. Hijo de inmigrantes judíos provenientes de Bohemia, asistió a la escuela en Kentucky y Alemania antes de graduarse en derecho en Harvard (1877). Como… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Brandeis, Louis Dembitz — (1856 1941)    American lawyer and Zionist leader. He was born in Louisville, Kentucky. He served as justice to the Supreme Court from 1916 to 1939, its first Jewish member. He was active in American Zionsm and the World Zionist Organization.… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Louis Dembitz Brandeis — Louis Brandeis, 1916. Louis Dembitz Brandeis (* 13. November 1856 in Louisville, Kentucky; † 5. Oktober 1941 in Washington D. C.) war ein US amerikanischer Jurist und erster jüdischer …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Louis Dembitz Brandeis — Louis Brandeis Louis Dembitz Brandeis (Louisville, 3 novembre 1856 – Washington, D.C., 5 octobre 1941), est un avocat américain qui fut me …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Louis Brandeis — Louis Dembitz Brandeis Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court In office June 1, 1916[1] – February 13, 1939 …   Wikipedia

  • Louis D. Brandeis — Louis Brandeis, 1916. Louis Dembitz Brandeis (* 13. November 1856 in Louisville, Kentucky; † 5. Oktober 1941 in Washington D. C.) war ein US amerikanischer Jurist und erster jüdischer …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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